Author(s): Dr. P. G. Khot, Sanjay Srivas

This paper covers the overview of Spatial Database System which offers Spatial Data Structure along with the Spatial Datatypes. It is most commonly used in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and other applications. Many applications operate on spatial data which include lines, points, regions and polygons etc. Spatial data are large in size and complex in structure and relationship hence spatial indexes are required to retrieve the desired result-set from the large dataset in optimum timeframe. The main emphasis on hierarchical data structures, including the number of indexing techniques like HHCode, R-tree, R+tree, Quadtree, Octree, UBtree etc. which are often used to improve query processing time in spatial database. Such techniques are also known as spatial indexing methods. Comparative study also covered in the paper for the R*-Tree and R-Tree indexing techniques, and results shown that the better performance of the queries using appropriate index