Author(s): Dr. GATETE Marcel, HARUBWIRA Flaubert

In contrast to a wired network, ad hoc networks are popular today because they are formed by wireless mobile nodes forming a temporary network without any existing infrastructure or a centralized manager. This type of network can be used for any purpose that requires successful end-to-end data packet delivery with no delay or loss. Because each mobile host has a limited range and acts as a router in the network, it must enlist the assistance of other hosts to forward packets to the destination. The primary goal of deploying a MANET is to relay packets from source node to destination node. Normal data transmission such as text does not impose high Quality of Service constraints. This issue arises when dealing with multimedia data such as image, photo, audio, and video because they necessitate different robust MANET's routing techniques such as multicast techniques for fast and efficient route discovery processes and multimedia data transmission applications that assist us in achieving successful delivery of any types of packets whether ordinary or multimedia data. Because these protocols are complex in nature and require high Quality of Services (QoS), various robust protocols have been proposed in the literature by various researchers; the goal of such mechanisms was to maximize QoS by taking into account multiple QoSconstraints, particularly for multimedia data transmission, but few of them provide an efficient mechanism for this achievement at a moderate rate. The genetic algorithm has been shown to be a reliable mechanism for providing high QoS for multimedia applications. Various scientific researchers attempted to solve issues that arose while transmitting this type of data in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks using this type of algorithm, but problems were not fully resolved because many of them did not use this featured technique appropriately. To address all of these issues, we propose a new protocol in this research study: EGAQM (Efficient Genetic Algorithm for Providing High QoS in MANETs), a very efficient and robust algorithm that is an energyefficient mechanism that primarily aims at finding an optimal path that is selected by considering multiple QoS-constraints. The proposed protocol is effective in dealing with various types of multimedia data. We compare the efficacy of this routing protocol to the prominent existing QoS-oriented Genetic Algorithms currently available in the literature, namely NSGA-II, NCGA, and AMGA, using NS-2 simulations. We vary the number of network and receiving nodes for better evaluation results, and the evaluation is carried out using popular routing evaluation metrics such as packet delivery ratio, end-to-end latency, packet loss, and residual energy. The simulation results demonstrated that the proposed scheme outperformed the existing ones by increasing the packet delivery ratio and energy on average by more than 10% and significantly reducing packet loss on average by 6% and end-to-end latency on average by 9% for all studied cases.